NEW BEER ACT:
“In addition to 70 inns and alehouses in Dover, upwards of 30 new houses were opened yesterday in that town under the retail beer act.”
(Kentish Gazette Oct 12 1830 back page col.4: “Dover”
From “Annals of Dover” by John Bavington Jones,
editor and owner of the Dover Express newspaper, Hon.Librarian of Dover Corporation 1916-22, 2nd edition 1938, preface dated Dover 1916 when original edition was published.
Page 447: “Part III: Inns: Old and New”
Inns are the handmaids of locomotion. When the stage-coaches were in full swing, roadside inns were a necessity; but when the coaches went off the roads at the opening of railways, those old inns suffered, and only a few of them remained to reap the advantages to be derived from the cyclist and motor-car traffic. Those old inns afforded a warm welcome to the travellers of their day, but a different style of comfort on the road is now required.
The accommodation for travellers at Dover in ancient and modern times is a fruitful topic. Owing to Dover’s position on the Continental Passage route, there have been inns here from a very early period; and they became more necessary after the Guest House of Dover Priory and the Hospital of the Maison Dieu ceased to entertain strangers. These religious houses had not been giving much hospitality to travellers for a good many years before the Reformation, consequently the inns and victualling houses were numerous in Dover all through the reign of Henry VIII. Near the close of his reign, in the year 1545, special regulations were made that all inns and victualling houses in this town should have signs painted on boards, one foot square, hung over the hall doors, so that the public might know which were public-houses and which not.
ny of the houses. The order as to the painted signboards was enforced with but two exceptions, it being mentioned that “The Lion” and the “Arms of England” had had their special signs from time out of mind, therefore they were not required to alter them. In the records of Dover, as found in the Egerton MSS in the British Museum, the list of victualling houses and inns at Dover at that time, and the beds they contained, were as follows:
St James’s Street
Jasper Jure – “The Plough” (three beds)
Francis Serlis – “The Angel” (three beds)
Rowland Edridge – “The Swan” (three beds)
Roger Fisher – “The King’s Arms” (three beds)
Johanna Barber (widow) – “The Signe of Jesus” (three beds)
Richard Malbine – “The Town Arms” (three beds)
John Stockham – “The Black Bull” (three beds)
The Lane next the Mayor’s (probably that was Dolphin Lane, as the Mayor was a sheep farmer and brewer)
Alys Rockingham (widow) – “The Porter” (three beds)
Uppwall (Chapel Street)
George Matthew – “The Angel” (six beds)
Anthony Rede – “The Crown and Key” (six beds)
William Price – “Adam and Eve” (three beds)
William Lorne – “The Black Anchor” and “The Corn Sheaf” (eight beds)
Andrew Davy – “St Andrew’s Cross” (three beds)
Thomas Jaxon – “The Cock” (nine beds)
Simon Fry – “The Anchor” (two beds)
John Miles – “The Lilly Pot” (eight beds)
Richard Wilmington – “The Greyhound” (four beds)
Thomas Everedge – “The Helmet” (four beds)
Margery Wilshire – “The Broad Axe” (three beds)
Edward Foster – “The Ship” (four beds)
Richard Rogers – “The Sun” (four beds)
Johanna Vaughan (widow) – “The Crown” (eight beds)
Roger Bund – “The Half Moon” (three beds)
James Dowell – “The Unicorn” (three beds)
William Dawson – “The Goat’s Head” (three beds)
Cuthbert Digeson – “The Tailor’s Shears” (four beds)
The inns were not so numerous as the victualling houses.
The following is a list of them but it does not mention the streets in which they were situated:-
“The Rose” (twelve beds and stabling) – Thomas Foxley
“The Maidenhead” (seven beds and stabling) – Dawson Parnell
“The Ship” (six beds and stabling) – Hugh Brackett
“The Angel” (six beds) – William Green
“The Spread Eagle” (three beds and stabling) – Hugh Fludd
“The Arms of England” (eight beds and stabling) – John Bowlle (Mayor)
“The Bear” (four beds and stabling) – John Gilbert
“The Lion” (sixteen beds and stabling) – William Fisher
“The Woolpack” (ten beds and stabling) – Thomas Vittery
“The Senior” (eight beds and stabling) – Richard Elham continued…
In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, innkeepers and victuallers were prohibited from going to the seaside on the arrival of Passage Boats to procure guests. In the Stuart times the “Shakespeare” Inn, then called “The George” was established. “The Cock” Inn and “The King’s Head” (still existing in the Pier**) were established in the reign of James I. “The Ship Tavern”, “The London” Hotel and “The Yorke” Hotel, all notable houses for travellers, flourished in the Pier district at the close of the Eighteenth Century. To “The Ship” the Duke of Wellington was carried on the shoulders of Dover Burgesses when he landed at Dover after the Peace of 1814, and when His Grace had been set down in his room he ordered the landlady to provide for them all an unlimited supply of buttered toast. “The Yorke” Hotel is mentioned in Miss Berry’s Journal as “a cheerful house overlooking the sea.” At the “London” Hotel, in Council House Street, Madame Bonaparte stayed in 1805, when, owing to a family quarrel, she was not allowed to land in France. “The Ship” Hotel was kept in later days by Mr John Birmingham, who was afterwards the well known host of the “Lord Warden” Hotel, built shortly after the commencement of the Admiralty Pier. The main building of “The Ship” was demolished, and became the site of Messrs Bradley’s corn store. The annexe became the offices of the Railway Packet Service.
Inns and ale-houses very rapidly increased in Dover in the early part of the Nineteenth Century. At the annual Licensing Sessions in the year 1837, twenty-one new licences were granted; and in 1846, the public-houses averaged one for every one hundred of the inhabitants. The tide of travel through Dover very largely increased during the latter part of the Nineteenth and the first decade of the Twentieth Century; but, owing to the hurried way in which Continental travellers have been coming and going in recent years, without much waiting for wind and tide, a smaller proportion of them sought the hospitality of the inns of Dover.
(** this would be at the date the book was written, ie. 1916)
“THE CAUSE IS ALTERED”: “Just above these Queen Street Schools there is a Public House with the curious name of “The Cause is Altered”, and on its wall is inscribed, “Here stood Cowgate, taken down by order of the Corporation 1776 – W. Taylor”. This was one of the Gates of the old walled town, and I have heard that in 1830 when some alterations were made in Queen Street, remains of an archway of this old Gate were seen built into the house, and a portion of its hinge is preserved in our Museum.” ….. “An old plan of the town in Queen Elizabeth’s days shows these walls and ten gates. The actual position of all these is somewhat difficult to decide; but, thanks to inscriptions let into a house or wall, where once stood the Gate, we are able to determine the site of Biggin Gate, Snar Gate, and Cow or Common Gate. “ (Some more Memories of Old Dover gathered from ‘Mr P.S.’ and short accounts from other sources, printed with An Account of the Dour by Mary Horsley – c.1895?)
Red Cow pub Folkestone Road – Walter Hobday c.1894
“The original Red Cow inn was set back from the road with a yard, was there long before buildings appeared in Folkestone Road in 1843. It is known that in 1810 a piece of meadow land near the pub was used to form Priory Street. It was rebuilt at the turn of the century, or possibly 1895 when Priory Place was widened. Demolished in 1971 when York Street dual carriage way was built.
” (Barry Smith)
NOTORIOUSLY BAD CHARACTERS at PUB: “Thomas Robert BOURNER of Sheer Hulk Beer-shop, Commercial Quay, was charged with knowingly permitting notoriously bad characters, ie. prostitutes, to assemble at his house – evidence from statement of young woman witness Sarah Ann Marsh age l7 of Drellingore, Alkham, who in the first charge took a man into the pub for the night, later returning with another man, (“conclusive proof that the information would be sustained”) “but as the defendant (ie Thos Robt Bourner) was not at home when summons was served, nor had he since returned (in addition to which the licence was not in Court), the case was adjourned till Friday and a fresh summons obtained. “Friday”: “Thomas Robert Bourner, landlord of the Sheer Hulk was fined 10s. including costs for allowing improper characters to assemble at his house. The Bench cautioned him touching a repetition of the offence, and allusion was made to the fearful responsibilities of the keepers of such houses, where many a young woman that might otherwise be moving in the paths of virtue, were encouraged in the road to infamy and ruin.”
(Dover Telegraph Saturday 10 May 1856, back page col.4: Dover Petty Sessions)
Wingham Division ALEHOUSE KEEPERS’ LICENCES 2nd September 1740 include:
Alehouse Keepers’ Signs Parishes A = Ale lic Sums received
Names N = New ditto
Thomas BROWNING Rose & Crown Buckland A. 8s
Joseph BELSEY George Ewell A. 8s
Matthew MUNDAY Fox East Langdon A. 8s.
Thomas BAKER Cherry Tree Buckland A 8s.
James NASH Coach & Horses River A 8s.
(Kent Co.Archives.ref: KAO – QRLV 3/1)
“When it was closed in 1969 it was reckoned to be about 300 years old.
Once the site of five fishermen’s cottages, date unknown.
The name prior to 1914 was “Prince Louis of Hesse”. When war damage repairs were authorised in 1951, it was stated that ‘The walls and ceiling were decorated with about 240 articles.
Included were swords, horse brasses, guns, including a 2” mortar, model ships etc. There were also 304 photographs displayed, 351 beer mats, 211 service flashes, hundreds of foreign currency notes and a ship’s wheel’. Demolition was in June 1970. Compensation came to £49 which covered the accountant’s bill of £39, plus £10 removal expenses.” (information from Barry Smith)
In 1878 in the Post Office Directory for Dover, Henry SMITH is listed as licensee of “Prince Louis”. Henry John PARAMORE retired (1887-8) to take the “Prince Louis” in Chapel Lane; after the Prince Louis he had the “Park Inn” in Park Place, which was continued by his widow Louisa after he died in 1892.
He was christened on 15.4.1838 at Tilmanstone, married Louisa; became a master mariner in 1882; in 1883 was mariner at 65 Folkestone Rd.
This was one of the Gates of the old walled town, and I have heard that in 1830 when some alterations were made in Queen Street, remains of an archway of this old Gate were seen built into the house, and a portion of its hinge is preserved in our Museum.” ….. “An old plan of the town in Queen Elizabeth’s days shows these walls and ten gates. The actual position of all these is somewhat difficult to decide; but, thanks to inscriptions let into a house or wall, where once stood the Gate, we are able to determine the site of Biggin Gate, Snar Gate, and Cow or Common Gate. “ (Some more Memories of Old Dover gathered from ‘Mr P.S.’ and short accounts from other sources, printed with An Account of the Dour by Mary Horsley – c.1895?)
The Cricketers’ Hotel
“The Brewer, Alfred LENEY sought magistrates’ permission to convert Crabble Cottage on the verge of the new athletic ground into a pub he intended to call The Cricketers Hotel. The Band of Hope asked the magistrates to call on pub landlords not to serve children under 13 with beer for consumption off the premises. It was normal for youngsters to call at pubs with a jug for beer for their fathers.”
(from our files, 100 years ago, from Dover Express of 28.8.1997 page 4)
Queens Head, Biggin Street
“A QUALM OF CONSCIENCE – Mr Richard HARVEY the present landlord of the “Queen’s Head” public house at Dover, formerly drove one of the coaches between that place and Canterbury during that time he lost out of the same a pair of Shoes and had forgotten the transaction until yesterday morning, when he received by the post the following letter with a 7 shilling piece under the seal: “To Mr Richard HARVEY: Being in company with a man who expressed much sorrow and contrition having taken a pair of shoes of yours out of the coach you drove from Dover to Canterbury, while standing in the street, he wishes to make you satisfaction for the injury he did you at that time. He has directed me to send you 7 shilling piece, the price the shoes cost you, then hoping you will forgive the injury done. The shoes was taken in the year 1797 or 1798 – the money is under the seal.”
(Kentish Gazette 1 May 1810 back page col.4 near bottom) [NB the “Queens Head” was where Boots chemists store now stands in Biggin Street, taken down about 20 years ago]